Most vehicles on the road today employ one of two types of braking systems. These braking systems are drum type or disc type. Many vehicles use them both, putting disc brakes on the front and drum brakes on the rear.
The disc type braking system consists of a master cylinder that converts pressure on the brake pedal to hydraulic pressure that is supplied through metal brake lines and rubber flex hoses to the brake calipers.
The brake calipers are mounted to the front steering strut and to the rear axle housing on vehicles equipped with rear disc brakes.
Attached to the axles of the vehicle are double sided disc brake rotors. These rotors provide the braking surface for the disc brake system.
The function of the brake caliper is to squeeze the brake rotor between disc brake pads to slow or stop the vehicle. To replace the brakes you will need special tools, such as brake caliper compression tool or a brake piston tool which could be purchased online from online shops such as the Landrover.com.
The brake caliper consists of a main housing with two smooth cylinders for the brake plungers and a bleeder port to allow for the extraction of air in the brake system. The plungers are steel cups with a groove around the outside for the rectangular o-ring that provides a seal between the caliper and the plunger. A pair of replaceable brake pads are mounted to the plungers with spring clips.
Because the brake calipers are mounted to the vehicle and the brake rotors are mounted to the axle, the extreme pressure exerted by the brake caliper to the rotor provides a very efficient braking system.